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记叙文 (Narration)写作

作者: 满分作文大全 发布时间: 2020年07月04日 14:01:00

记叙文,又称记事文或叙述文。它是用来述说人物经历或用来记叙过去所发生的一件事或一系列事的一种文体。

(二) 六要素

记叙文的主要任务是记人和叙事,而人物的活动和事件的发生总有一定的时间和地点、前因和后果。因此写记叙文时要把握六个要素,即事情发生的时间、地点、人物、事件、原因、结果六要素。其中以时间、地点和人物为主要三大要素。

(三) 基本结构

1. 开端
叙述一件事,往往有一定的情景。介绍这个情景就是开端。作者在开端中,通常要交代事件发展的时间、地点、有关人物和人与人之间相互关系等内容,帮助读者理解事件的本身。
2. 发展
叙述的主体是发展部分,通常有最初情景的产生,矛盾的发展和激化的过程。
3. 结局
记叙文的结局是事件的结束,往往不是矛盾的终止而是矛盾的某种解决。

(四) 分类

记叙文常采用的叙述方式有三种:顺叙、倒叙和插叙。
1. 顺叙
以情节发生的时间先后为序开始记叙为顺叙或正叙。
2. 倒叙
从故事或事件结尾开始叙述为倒叙。
3. 插叙
从故事或事件中间写起为插叙。

(五) 范文评析

Sample 1
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words on A Day in My Summer Vacation. Remember to write clearly.

A Day in My Summer Vacation

Last summer I spent a two-week vacation at my aunt’s. My aunt lived alone in a mountain village, with a small river winding its course everyday.
One morning I went fishing in the river, where two women washed clothes. I found a most favorable point. Casting out my line, I waited anxiously for a bite. Suddenly there came a cry: “Help! Help!” I looked in the direction of the call and saw a boy falling into the river. Throwing the fishing pole, I dashed over like an arrow, jumped into the river and swam very quickly towards the boy. Then together with his mother I carried the boy on my back to a nearby hospital. That boy was saved. The mother gave me a thousand thanks.
Back to my fishing place, I found my fishing pole floating on the water. I managed to get it. But to my great surprise, there was a big fish on the hook..

评析:
本文采用三段式的行文形式,采用顺叙的方法,叙述了“我”救落水儿童的经历。第一段交代了事件发生的时间、地点和人物。第二段叙述了事件发生的过程——我去钓鱼,听见有人喊“救命”,便箭一般跑到出事地点,并纵身跳入水中营救落水儿童,受到其母的千恩万谢。第三段叙述事件的结果——救人回来,我惊奇地发现鱼上了钩。文章叙事完整,语言明晰,过度自然,浑然一体。

Sample 2
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words on An Unforgettable Accident. Remember to write clearly.

An Unforgettable Accident

It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was still deserted. I was on my way to school A little school boy came out of a house, walking hurriedly along. When he passed me, I heard him reciting the multiplication tables. He was still reciting when he started to cross the street.
He was too preoccupied in his study, and did not look before he crossed. Suddenly, a speeding car came around the corner. I was terrified and shouted at him to stop. But it was too late. The car ran straight towards him. Bang! He was knocked down.
I rushed towards the boy, crying for help. But the driver of the car continued his journey, ran away from his responsibility, without a further look at the unconscious boy.
The boy was still bleeding when the police, who had been informed by a passer-by, arrived with their ambulance. The police began to investigate. I had witnessed the accident, but did not have a look at the license number of the car. So I was no help, and they let me go back to class.
When I picked up the evening newspaper, my eyes were caught by one of the head-lines “Schoolboy Killed in Car Accident.” These words sent me into a sorrowful mood, and have since remained in my memory after all these years.

Sample 3
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words on Our New English Teacher. Remember to write clearly.

Our New English Teacher

Miss Emily is our English teacher this term. She has been here for one year but I have never attended her classes before as she has taught in the first grade. I have, however, seen her very often and heard a great deal about her. She is known to be a teacher of considerable ability and author of a number of books. I am really lucky to be able to attend her lectures this term.
She is of medium height, about twenty five years of age. Though young and attractive in appearance she is dignified and reserved. She is somewhat strict at times but never or stern. Her patience is really wonderful She will never give up explaining until every one understands As she does not speak Chinese she has to make drawing sometimes, and I think she draws unusually well.
Her method of teaching is different from that of our former teacher. Instead of explaining fully every new lesson beforehand she just give us assignments and let us work out ourselves. She explains only during the time of recitation when she will explain and correct mistakes. In correcting compositions she follows the same rule. Instead of making corrections she just marks out all mistakes and asks us to do the correcting ourselves. This helps us to remember the errors so as to avoid repetition.
Her method means more work for us to do in the evening, as we have to consult the dictionary again and again, but we feel that we have been making a rapid progress. We are making much fewer mistakes in our compositions, and we have formed the habit of relying on ourselves. We always consult the dictionary when we have some doubt as to the meaning or spelling of any word. Every one of our class is now talking bout our new English teacher who deserves our love and respect.

Sample 4
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words on An Unforgettable Test. Remember to write clearly.

An Unforgettable Test