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Foreign Students Series (2)|外国留学生系列(2)

作者: 满分作文大全 发布时间: 2019年11月19日 21:48:37

Part 2  
What's the difference between a college and a university?
  Colleges and universities have a lot in common. They prepare young adults for work. They provide a greater understanding of the world and its past. And they help students learn to value the arts1 and sciences.
  Students who attend either a college or a university traditionally take four years to complete a program of study. Those who are successful receive a bachelor's2 degree. But one difference is that many colleges do not offer additional study programs or support research projects.
  Universities often are much larger than colleges. Universities carry out a lot of research. They offer more programs in different areas of study, for undergraduate3 and graduate4 students. Modern universities developed from those of the Middle Ages in Europe. The word “university” came from the Latin “universitas.” This described a group of people organized for a common purpose.
  “College” came from a Latin word with a similar meaning, “collegium.” In England, colleges were formed to provide students with places to live. Usually each group was studying the same thing. So the word “college” came to mean one area of study.
  Today, most American colleges offer an area of study called liberal arts5. The liberal arts are subjects first developed and taught in ancient Greece. They trained a person's mind. They were seen as different from subjects that were considered more useful in everyday life.
  Another meaning of “college” is a part of a university. The first American universities divided their studies into many areas and called each one a college. This is still true.
  Programs in higher learning may also be called “schools.” For example, the University of Texas at Austin has fourteen colleges and schools. These include the colleges of pharmacy6, education, engineering, and fine arts7. They also include the schools of architecture8, business, law and information.

Part 3
  How are some students able to stay in their home country and still earn a degree?
  Many students who take classes by computer over the Internet say they like the independence of online9 education. Students do not have to sit in a classroom and do not have to attend courses at a set time. Professors say they have better communication10 with students through e-mail than they do in many traditional classes.
  American colleges and universities have been offering classes online for a number of years. The University of Phoenix, in Arizona, has been offering degrees online since 1989. University officials say they try to provide students with a social experience as well as an educational one. In some programs, for example, students in groups of six take all their classes together. They communicate with each other by computer.
  Jones International University in Englewood, Colorado, describes itself as the first fully online accredited11 university. Jones International offers both bachelor's and master's degrees12. Another online school is Cardean University, near Chicago, Illinois. It began in 2000. It offers a master's of business administration13 degree. It says its courses are developed with five top business schools and can be completed in as little as twenty-two months. Cardean says it has taught students from 90 countries.
  Lists of schools that offer online programs are easy to find on the Internet. Just use a search engine14 like Google or Yahoo and type in “online education.”
  Be careful, though, of offers for a college degree in return for15 little or no work. Such operations are illegal in the United States. Educational advisers say that before you enter any program, you should make sure the work will be recognized in your country.
(选自VOA Special English)

第二部分  
专科学院和综合大学的区别在哪里?
  专科学院和综合大学有很多相同之处。它们都帮助年轻人为将来的工作做好准备,它们帮助年轻人更多地了解关于世界及其历史,它们还帮助学生学会重视人文科学和自然科学。
  无论在专科学院或者综合大学念书的学生传统上完成一个专业的学习都需要4年。顺利毕业者将获得学士学位。但有一个区别是很多专科学院并不提供更高级的学习课程,也不资助科研项目。
  综合大学通常比专科学院大许多。综合大学开展大量的研究工作。它们在不同的学科为本科生和研究生提供更多的课程。
  现代综合大学是从欧洲中世纪大学发展而来。“综合大学”这个词源于拉丁文“universitas”,意思是一群为某个共同目标而组织起来的人们。
   “专科学院”源于拉丁文中意义相近的一个词“collegium”。在英国,当初组建专科学院的目的是为学生提供住宿的地方。通常每一组学生学习相同的科目,所以这个词后来有了某一专门学科的意思。
  如今,美国的大多数专科学院都提供称为文科的学习科目。文科最初是在古希腊传授和发展起来的。这些学科训练人们的思维,人们认为它们不同于那些日常生活中被认为更实用的学科。
  “College”的另一个意思是综合大学的一部分。美国最早的综合大学把学习项目细分为许多不同的领域,每一个领域被称为一个学院,现在依然如此。
  高等教育的学术体系也可以叫做“schools”(学院)。比如,德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校有14个学院,其中包括药学院、教育学院、工程学院和美术学院(colleges),此外还包括建筑学院、商学院、法学院和信息学院(schools)。